In the 19th century itself, several main leftist groups were in place in Europe, e.g. Anarchists, Communists and Narodniks (
The anarchists have also been present in different flavors: Anarcho-syndicalism, anarcho-capitalism, anarcho-communism, Mutualism, Collectivist anarchism, Christian anarchism, etc. with anarcho-syndicalists emerging as the only group to have achieved some success during the Spanish Civil War while the zapatistas (EZLN) in Mexico have received international attention since mid-90s. In present days, the greens have emerged as another variant of the left in several countries.
As one can see, over the last 250 years or so since when leftist movements have been in place, it has seen countless divisions. It was inevitable given the international character of these movements which found that Marx’s espousal of inevitability of a common human history irrespective of local conditions was ill-founded. However, while many of these divisions were given an ideological flavor, very often they have been caused because of personality clashes. Though the idea of bringing together the communist groups in several groups through the Comintern failed, we can see today some signs of consolidation. In